H-D Systems analyzes different alternative fuels for efficiency, cost-savings, and environmental impact. We analyze the issues from the “pump to the wheel” but are fully cognizant of fuel supply issues in the whole analysis. The issues we examine include: 
• Distribution and Retailing Infrastructure
• Engine/Fuel Interactions
• Emissions
as well as other factors such as hedonic attributes of alternative fuel vehicles and their attractiveness to customers.

Over the last decades, a number of fuels like methanol, ethanol, natural gas and propane (LPG) have received attention but vehicle electrification has now received the majority of funding and is widely regarded as the optimal direction for the future. The mild hybrid and the “full” hybrid are regarded as stepping stones to the future for full battery electric vehicles and eventually, fuel cell vehicles, as shown below.

H-D Systems is very knowledgeable in all of the alternative fuels related issues, and in all forms of vehicle electrification strategies as well. As examples, we have
• Developed detailed cost data on different hybrid types and estimated optimal hybrid strategies for the future
• Examined battery developments by interviewing major battery manufacturers and estimated performance, cost and evolution of battery technology for the EU’s Directorate of Climate Change
• Assisted an electric utility in its strategic planning for refueling infrastructure for pure battery electric vehicles
• Developed a consumer choice model for hybrid and electric vehicles in association with Dr. David Greene of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.